What is Route Object?
Route Object does a few things. Foremost, its an object in Internet Routing Registry that specifies ASN that will propagate IP prefix to the whole internet. The secondary task of Route Object is to give out basic information about the organization that advertises this prefix.
Why do you need it?
ISPs use Route Objects to validate if the route information they receive is valid and legitimate. This helps to stop people from hijacking your IPs.
Who can change Route Objects?
Route Object can be changed by the owner or the person to whom the right been given to change the information in RIR.